TED科學:弗雷德·克魯普:我們能否從太空中追蹤甲烷泄露并減緩氣候變化?

發表時間:2018-10-13內容來源:VOA英語學習網

TED科學:Fred Krupp: Let's launch a satellite to track a threatening greenhouse gas

We've got a big problem on our handswith global warming.A lot of you, a lot of peoplehave been watching the floods,the droughts, the storms, the fires.When I leave this stage today,I don't want you to have hope.I want you to have certainty,real certaintythat we can make a dentin this problem and live to see it.I want to give you a visionof what that would look like.This is the first timewe've shared this publicly.You're the first audience to hear it.

We are going to launch a rocket.And on that rocket will be a satellite.And that satellite will collectdata about pollutionthat is warming the planet.We will put that datain the hands of peoplewho can make simple fixesthat will change the courseof global warming in our lifetime.

That's a lot to take in,maybe I should back up.First, let me introduce myself, I'm Fred,I've been an environmentalistsince I was a kid,when I watched the fish and the frogsin my neighborhood ponddie from a chemical spill.That bothered me.Later, a professor inspired me to thinkabout environmentalism differently.How the best solutions come fromanswering people's aspirationsfor prosperity,things like being safe and healthyand thriving in this world.So I joined the Environmental Defense Fundto build those kind of solutions.And I've worked my whole careerfor a moment like this —the moment, when we can stopfighting headwindsand start to have the wind at our backs.Because of the power of information,information from technologythat is coming down in priceand going up in precision.

You see, there's somethingabout climate change that we didn't graspjust a decade ago.The world was so focused on carbon dioxidethat we overlooked another important gas.We didn't appreciate methane.Methane pollution causes one quarterof the global warmingthat we're experiencing right now.Pound for pound, its immediate impactis far greater than carbon dioxide.Eighty four times greaterover a 20-year period.One of the largest sourcesof methane pollutionis the oil and gas industry.But that's not obvious,because methane is invisible.

Let's take a lookat this natural gas storage facilityoutside of Los Angeles.Can you see the methane?Neither can I.How about now?We shot this using an infrared camera,at the same spot,exposing one of the worst methane leaksin the history of the United States.That's a very different picture.It turns out that natural gasis displacing our dependence on coal,which emits far more carbon dioxide.But natural gas is mostly methane.So, as it's produced and processedand transported to homesand businesses across America,it escapes from wells and pipesand other equipment.It gets up into the sky and contributesto the disastersthat we're now experiencing.That does not have to happen.

But nobody had paid much attention to ituntil we launched a nationwide studyto understand the problem.We used drones, planes, helicopters,even Google Street View cars.It turns out there's far moreof this methane pollutionthan what the government is reporting.It also turns out that when we findwhere the gas is being vented and leaked,most of those sources can be fixedeasily and inexpensively,saving the gas that would haveotherwise been wasted.And finally, we learn that when you putinformation like that into people's hands,they act.Leading companies replaced valvesand tightened loose-fitting pipes.Colorado became the first statein the nation to limit methane pollution;California followed suit,and the public joined in.Tweets started flying — #cutmethane.And everybody's paying more attention now.

We're doing this because we can't waitfor Washington, especially not now.In fact, we have to takewhat we've done so farand go higher, to the sky.The United Stated representsabout 10 percent of this pollution.To find the rest, we have to go global.Remember that rocket I mentioned?It will launch a compact satellite,called MethaneSAT,to do what no onehas been able to do until now:measure methane pollutionfrom oil and gas facilities worldwide,with exacting precision.Its data stream will allow usto map that pollution,so that everyone can see it.Then it's all aboutturning data into action,just as we did in the United States.

We've seen that when we presentcompanies with data,many of them will cut the pollution.Citizens will be empowered to take action;governments will tighten the regulations.And because all of our datawill be free and public,there will be transparency —we'll all be able to see how much progressis being made and where.Which brings me to our goal:to cut this methane pollutionby 45 percent by 2025.

(Applause)

That will have the same near-term impactas shutting down1,300 coal-fired power plants.That's one third of allthe coal-fired power plants in the world.Nothing else can have this sort ofnear-term impact at such a low cost.The fact that a single satellitecan help us put the brakeson global warming is truly remarkable.This is our chance to createchange in our lifetimes,and we can do it now.

Thanks to the generous givingof the Audacious Project,we are on a path toward liftoff.But my time is running short,and I promised you a visionof what a critical pieceof the solution would look like.Can you see it?Can you see how this satellite leveragesthe best of scienceand data and technology?Can you see we're enteringa whole new era of innovationthat is supercharging progress?Can you see that it's in our hands?

We've set an aggressive goalof three years till liftoff,and when that satellite is ready,we'll have a launch party.A literal launch party.So imagine a blue-sky day,crowds of people,television cameras,kids staring up toward the skyat a thing thatwill change their future.What an amazing day that will be.What a big opportunity we have.I can't wait.

Thank you.

(Applause)

來自:VOA英語網 文章地址: http://www.voapld.tw/html/20181013/Fred-Krupp-Lets-launch-a-satellite-to-track-a-threatening-gr.html

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